Spirulina (Arthrospora platensis) in The Diet Reduces Sodium Arsenates’ Impacts on Kidney Enzyme Activities, Histopathology, and Arsenic Accumulation in Rats Models

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zakho, Zakho, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


The study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenate (As) exposure on body weight, and kidney enzymes activities, assess histopathological changes in this tissue, and explore the potential protective role of spirulina (Sp) in reducing the harmful impacts of (As) on kidney health. The research utilized forty-eight female Wistar rats and divided them into six groups, including a control group that fed a normal diet and distilled water, the second group the rat treated with a 5mg/kg body weight of sodium arsenate-only group, the group three and four the rats treated with spirulina at different doses (300mg and 600mg), and the last group treated with combined (As) and (Sp) treatments. After four weeks of the experiment, the kidney was collected for enzyme analysis and histological examination. The results showed that As exposure decreased body weight (BW) compared to the control group, while (Sp) supplementation partially improved body weight. Arsenate exposure significantly increased the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes in kidney tissues. However, spirulina supplementation at different doses reduced the enzyme levels, albeit statistically not significantly. The histological examination revealed As exposure resulted in necrosis, congestion, leukocyte infiltration, glomerular atrophy, and fibrosis, while Sp supplementation showed limited effects on reducing these changes. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the toxic effects of As and suggests that Sp supplementation may offer some protection against its harmful impacts on kidney health.